In counseling people (which I consider to be focused discipleship on particular issues), it is necessary to find out what people are actually thinking, how they are interpreting their life, and what their interpretations say about what they really believe.
I find it often helpful to give homework so that the thoughts of the conversation continue after we separate from each other.
I found the following homework in Paul David Tripp's excellent book Instruments in the Redeemer's Hands (Philipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 2002), on p. 312. It is based on 1 Corinthians 10:13 and designed to get the person to formally express where he disbelieves God. I usually find it helpful to have the person actually write out his answers so that he is forced to take time to think about it rather than just winging it when we get back together. I rarely keep the homework since I don't need it, though I may make a copy of it if I think it will be relevant for future conversations. I usually give the original back to the person, and say, "Keep this and keep working on it."
1 Corinthians 10:13
No temptation has overtaken you but such as is common to man; and God is faithful, who will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able, but with the temptation will provide the way of escape also, so that you will be able to endure it.
Declaration: No temptation has overtaken you but such as is common to man;
Question: Where have you been tempted to think that your situation is unique and that you have been singled out for particular suffering?
Declaration: God is faithful.
Question: Where have you tended to believe that God has been unfaithful to his promises to you?
Declaration: He will not allow you to be tempted beyond what you are able,
Question: Where have you thought that you have been given more than you can handle or that the extreme pressures of the situation have caused you to sin?
Declaration: but with the temptation will provide the way of escape also, so that you will be able to endure it.
Question: Where have you tended to feel trapped, with no reasonable way to deal with your situation?